Bridging Blockchain Divides: How Injective & Side Protocol Are Enabling True Cross-Chain DeFi

Prateek Tripathi
5 min readAug 25, 2023

Decentralized finance (DeFi) is transforming finance — enabling lending, trading, investments and more without centralized intermediaries. But its potential remains restricted by fragmentation between isolated blockchain ecosystems.

Assets and applications on networks like Ethereum, BNB Chain, Avalanche, etc. exist in walled-off silos. Cross-chain communication relies on brittle, inefficient bridging technologies.

This severely limits composability, liquidity flow, and user experience in DeFi. But two leading projects — Injective Protocol and Side Protocol — are pioneering solutions to bridge blockchain divides and unlock the era of true cross-chain DeFi.

The Scalability & UX Bottlenecks of Legacy Bridges

Current bridge architectures have several drawbacks that undermine cross-chain DeFi:

Slow Finality

Bridged transfers can take hours to days to fully settle. This fails to meet the real-time demands of trading and lending apps. Slow finality degrades user experience.

Low Throughput

Bridges restrict transaction capacity between chains. This throttles potential liquidity flow in DeFi. Congested bridges become bottlenecks.

Centralization Risks

Many bridges rely on centralized custodians to facilitate transfers. This contradicts the ethos of self-custody and censorship resistance in DeFi.

Single Points of Failure

Technical issues, exploits or manipulation of bridge contracts can disrupt transfers. Over $2B in funds were lost in bridge hacks in 2022 alone.

These limitations severely undermine seamless cross-chain DeFi. But hash timelock contract (HTLC) based atomic swaps offer a compelling solution.

Introducing Atomic Cross-Chain Swaps

Atomic swaps allow direct trading of assets across separate blockchains in a fully decentralized manner.

HTLCs enable this by locking up funds on each chain until users exchange secrets to release the swapped assets. Trades occur instantly between counterparties without liquidity pools or proxy tokens.

For example:

  1. Alice initiates a BNB/ETH swap by deploying an HTLC on BNB Chain locking up 10 BNB. This contract contains a secret hash only she knows.
  2. Bob deploys a corresponding ETH HTLC on Ethereum, locking up 5 ETH. This contract contains a unique secret from Bob.
  3. Once both HTLC transactions are mined, Alice and Bob exchange secrets to claim their swapped assets atomically.

No third parties or liquidity providers are needed. Trades settle peer-to-peer on each blockchain. This allows practically unlimited throughput, only constrained by individual chain limits.

Atomic swaps unlock the holy grail of scalable, decentralized cross-chain trading and asset transfers. This is the missing puzzle piece for true interoperable DeFi.

Injective + Side Protocol: An Atomic Bridge Between Chains

Injective Protocol and Side Protocol are collaborating to implement atomic swaps and bridge the liquidity between their ecosystems.

Injective Protocol offers a high-performance Cosmos-based DEX tailored for derivatives, leveraged products, and cross-chain DeFi. It achieves upwards of 10,000 TPS.

However, like any single chain, Injective is walled off from external liquidity. this restricts potential trading activity and product innovation.

Side Protocol enables trustless peer-to-peer asset swaps between blockchains like Ethereum, BNB Chain, and Polkadot. It implements the core Interchain Atomic Swap (IAS) protocol.

By combining forces, Injective gains seamless two-way access to liquidity across DeFi through IAS atomic swaps. Side Protocol brings swaps to another highly liquid blockchain ecosystem.

Together they pave the way for truly interconnected on-chain finance.

Benefits of Injective Integrating IAS Atomic Swaps

The integration unlocks two major advantages for Injective DeFi:

1. Access to External Liquidity

Injective dapps can tap into liquidity pools on Ethereum, BNB Chain, Polygon etc. This boosts trading volumes and reduces slippage.
For example, a BNB/USDT perpetual swap product on Injective could source liquidity from BNB Chain natively rather than relying on fragmented liquidity pools locked within Injective alone.

2. Seamless Asset Transfers

Users can instantly swap assets across blockchains to seize trade opportunities or optimize yields.

For instance, arbitrageurs may swap INJ from Injective to ETH on Ethereum to capitalize on price inefficiencies between decentralized exchanges on each chain.

These atomic swaps avoid the throughput limits, centralization risks, and poor user experience of legacy bridge designs.

Ultimately, Injective projects and traders gain unified access to the total liquidity, assets and opportunities across isolated DeFi ecosystems.

Technical Architecture Powering Cross-Chain Atomic Swaps

Under the hood, how do atomic swaps work across Injective and external chains like Ethereum?

Hash Timelock Contracts (HTLCs) enable trustless escrow of assets on each blockchain during the swap process. Injective and Side Protocol modify HTLC infrastructure for cross-chain compatibility.

Relayers scan multiple chains for swap opportunities between counterparties and broadcast orders. This facilitates peer discovery.

Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC) connects Injective with chains like Ethereum and BNB. IBC enables relaying tokens and data between blockchains to finalize swaps.

By bringing these components together, Injective can integrate any blockchain into its liquidity mesh using the IAS swap protocol.

Future Roadmap for Cross-Chain DeFi

The integration of IAS atomic swaps is only the beginning. Injective outlines a roadmap to expand interoperability:

10+ Chain Integrations- Expand beyond Ethereum/BNB to integrate major DeFi chains like Polygon, Avalanche, Fantom, Gnosis etc.

Swaps Between Any Token Types — Support atomic swaps between any asset types like NFTs, synthetic stocks, and more.

Generalized Cross-Chain Messaging — Allow seamless exchange of arbitrary data between Injective and external chains beyond just token transfers.

Cross-Chain NFT Bridging — Enable instant, trustless bridging of NFTs across chains through concepts like meta-transactions.

Cross-Chain DEX Trading — Support direct trading against pooled liquidity on external AMMs without siloed order books.As these capabilities evolve, we move closer to a multi-chain future with boundless liquidity flow and composability between decentralized applications on any blockchain. Injective and Side Protocol lay the groundwork to make this vision a reality.


Fragmented liquidity and limited interoperability between blockchains remain major obstacles restricting the growth of decentralized finance. But atomic swaps and the hash timelock contract infrastructure provide a viable path to seamless cross-chain asset transfers and application composability. By bridging Injective’s high-performance DeFi ecosystem with external chains, the integration with Side Protocol marks a landmark leap forward in the realization of true multi-chain finance.

Together, Injective and Side Protocol are pioneering solutions that enable frictionless movement of value between isolated DeFi islands, unlocking more open, efficient and decentralized financial systems.

Thanks for reading !!



Prateek Tripathi

Introducing Prateek Tripathi, a tech-savvy individual with a passion for all things crypto, blockchain, and coding.